ISTQB Foundation Questions

קובץ שאלות ותשובות בנושא ISTQB

Deciding How much testing is enough should take into account

i. Level of Risk including Technical and Business product and project risk
ii. Project constraints such as time and budget
iii. Size of Testing Team
iv. Size of the Development Team

a) i,ii,iii are true and iv is false
b) i,,iv are true and ii is false
c) i,ii are true and iii,iv are false
d) ii,iii,iv are true and i is false
2. Test planning has which of the following major tasks?

i. Determining the scope and risks, and identifying the objectives of testing.
ii. Determining the test approach (techniques,test items, coverage, identifying and interfacing the teams
involved in testing , testware)
iii. Reviewing the Test Basis (such as requirements,architecture,design,interface)
iv. Determining the exit criteria.
a) i,ii,iv are true and iii is false
b) i,,iv are true and ii is false
c) i,ii are true and iii,iv are false
d) ii,iii,iv are true and i is false

Reviewing the Test Basis:
Test basis needed in order to start the test analysis(review: documentation, requirements, ) and create from it Test Cases.
3. Evaluating testability of the requirements and system are a part of which phase

a) Test Analysis and Design
b) Test Planning and control
c) Test Implementation and execution
d) Evaluating exit criteria and reporting
------
Test analysis:
- Review test basis (documentation, requirements, )
Test Design:
- Set of inputs/output - build test conditions with excepted results(Static/Dynamic Techniques )

Test planning:
- Objective, test strategy(testing objectives, method of testing, total time and resources), schedule...
Test control:
- Monitor progress (test coverage and exit criteria...)

Implementation:
- Transferring conditions into test cases, create test data, create test suites from the test cases 

Test execution:
- To execute test suites
4. One of the fields on a form contains a text box which accepts alphabets in lower or upper case.
Indentify the invalid Equivalance class value.

a. CLASS
b. cLASS
c. CLass
d. CLa01ss 
5. In a system designed to work out the tax to be paid:
An employee has £4000 of salary tax free. The next £1500 is taxed at 10% The next £28000 is taxed at 22% Any further amount is taxed at 40% Which of these groups of numbers would fall into the same equivalence class?

a) £4800; £14000; £28000
b) £5200; £5500; £28000
c) £28001; £32000; £35000
d) £5800; £28000; £32000

--0%--4000--10%--5500--22%--33500--40%--
6. Which of the following has highest level of independence in which test cases are:

a) Designed by persons who write the software under test
b) Designed by a person from a different section
c) Designed by a person from a different organization
d) Designed by another person
7. We use the output of the requirement analysis, the requirement specification as the input for writing

a) User Acceptance Test Cases
b) Integration Level Test Cases
c) Unit Level Test Cases
d) Program specifications
8. Validation involves which of the following

i. Helps to check the Quality of the Built Product
ii. Helps to check that we have built the right product.
iii. Helps in developing the product
iv. Monitoring tool wastage and obsoleteness.

a) Options i,ii,iii,iv are true.
b) ii is true and i,iii,iv are false
c) i,ii,iii are true and iv is false
d) iii is true and i,ii,iv are false
9. Which of the following uses Impact Analysis most?

a) Component testing
b) Non-functional system testing
c) User acceptance testing
d) Maintenance testing

Impact Analysis:
- Analyzing the impact of the changes(regression testing). 
10. What is the expected result for each of the following test cases?



A. Citibank card member, holding a Silver room
B. Non Citibank-member, holding a Platinum room

a) A – Don’t offer any upgrade, B – Don’t offer any upgrade.
b) A – Don’t offer any upgrade, B – Offer upgrade to Gold.
c) A – Offer upgrade to Silver, B – Offer upgrade to Silver.
d) A – Offer upgrade to Gold, B – Don’t offer any upgrade.
11. Repeated Testing of an already tested program, after modification, to discover any defects introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes in the software being tested or in another related or unrelated software component:

a) Re Testing.
b) Confirmation Testing
c) Regression Testing
d) Negative Testing

Re Testing/Confirmation Testing:
Check the test cases that were unsuccessful in the final execution are successfully pass after the defects are repaired.
12. Impact Analysis helps to decide

a) How much regression testing should be done.
b) Exit Criteria
c) How many more test cases need to written.
d) Different Tools to perform Regression Testing

Impact Analysis:
- Part of change control process
13. Functional system testing is:



a) testing that the system functions with other systems
b) testing that the components that comprise the system function together
c) testing the end to end functionality of the system as a whole
d) testing the system performs functions within specified response times
14. Consider the above state transition diagram of a switch.
Which of the following represents an invalid state transition?

a) OFF to ON
b) ON to OFF
c) FAULT to ON
15. Peer Reviews are also called as

a) Inspection
b) Walkthrough
c) Technical Review
d) Formal Review

Formal Review
[
Inspection:
- led by the trained moderators, documentation of defects, helps the author to improve the quality of the document (document checked by the reviewers before the Inspection) 

Walkthrough:
- Author leads members of the development team, main target is to achieve a common understanding.

Technical Review:
- led by the trained moderator, defects are found by the experts on the content of the document.

Formal Review:
[[
- Planning (the review process begins with a request for review by the author to the moderator/inspection leader. A moderator has to take care of the scheduling, entry check( to ensure that the reviewer’s time is not wasted), exit criteria ).
- Kick-off (short introduction on the objectives by author).
- Preparation (reviewers review the document individually, all issues are recorded using a logging form - checking rate is ¬7 pages per hour).
- Review meeting-Logging phase: the issues and the defects that have been identified during the preparation step are logged by the author or by a scribe. During the logging phase the moderator keeps a logging rate (number of defects logged per minute);
- Discussion phase: The moderator takes care for discussion of the logging issues.
- Decision phase: If the number of defects found per page is more than a exit criteria then the document must be reviewed again-reworked.
]]

Rework:
- Author judges whether the defect has to be fixed.

Follow-up: 
- Moderator check if the author has taken action on all defects.

]
16. Consider the following statements:

i. 100% statement coverage guarantees 100% branch coverage.
ii. 100% branch coverage guarantees 100% statement coverage.
iii. 100% branch coverage guarantees 100% decision coverage.
iv. 100% decision coverage guarantees 100% branch coverage.
v. 100% statement coverage guarantees 100% decision coverage.

a) ii is True; i, iii, iv & v are False
b) i & v are True; ii, iii & iv are False
c) ii & iii are True; i, iv & v are False
d) ii, iii & iv are True; i & v are False 
17. The Kick Off phase of a formal review includes the following

a) Explaining the objective
b) Fixing defects found typically done by author
c) Follow up
d) Individual Meeting preparations
18. Match every stage of the software Development Life cycle with the Testing Life cycle:

i. Hi-level design
a Unit tests
ii. Code
b Acceptance tests
iii. Low-level design
c System tests
iv. Business requirements
d Integration tests

a) i-d , ii-a , iii-c , iv-b
b) i-c , ii-d , iii-a , iv-b
c) i-b , ii-a , iii-d , iv-c
d) i-c , ii-a , iii-d , iv-b 
19. Which of the following is not phase of the Fundamental Test Process?

a) Test Planning and Control
b) Test implementation and Execution
c) Requirement Analysis
d) Evaluating Exit criteria and reporting
20. Which of the following techniques is NOT a black box technique?

a) State transition testing
b) LCSAJ (Linear Code Sequence and Jump)
c) syntax testing
d) boundary value analysis
21. Success Factors for a review include

i. Each Review does not have a predefined objective
ii. Defects found are welcomed and expressed objectively
iii. Management supports a good review process.
iv. There is an emphasis on learning and process improvement.

a) ii,iii,iv are correct and i is incorrect
b) iii , i , iv is correct and ii is incorrect
c) i , iii , iv , ii is in correct
d) ii is correct
22. Defects discovered by static analysis tools include:

i. Variables that are never used.
ii. Security vulnerabilities.
iii. Programming Standard Violations
iv. Uncalled functions and procedures

a) i , ii,iii,iv is correct
b) iii ,is correct I,ii,iv are incorrect.
c) i ,ii, iii and iv are incorrect
d) iv, ii is correct
23. Test Conditions are derived from 

a) Specifications
b) Test Cases
c) Test Data
d) Test Design

Test Design:
The act of creating and writing test cases.
24. Which of the following is true about White and Black Box Testing Technique

a) Equivalance partitioning, Decision Table and Control flow are White box Testing Techniques.
b) Equivalence partitioning , Boundary Value Analysis , Data Flow are Black Box Testing Techniques.
c) Equivalence partitioning , State Transition , Use Case Testing are black box Testing Techniques.
d) Equivalence Partioning , State Transition , Use Case Testing and Decision Table are White Box Testing Techniques.
25. Regression testing should be performed:

i. every week
ii. after the software has changed
iii. as often as possible
iv. when the environment has changed
v. when the project manager says

a) i & ii are true, iii, iv & v are false
b) ii, iii & iv are true, i & v are false
c) ii & iv are true, i, iii & v are false
d) ii is true, i, iii, iv & v are false 
26. Benefits of Independent Testing

a) Independent testers are much more qualified than Developers
b) Independent testers see other and different defects and are unbiased.
c) Independent Testers cannot identify defects.
d) Independent Testers can test better than developers
27. Minimum Tests Required for Statement Coverage and Branch Coverage

Read P 300  60,30
Read Q 2    41,41
If p+q > 100 then
Print “Large”
End if
If p > 50 then
Print “pLarge”
End if

a) Statement coverage is 2, Branch Coverage is 2
b) Statement coverage is 3 and branch coverage is 2
c) Statement coverage is 1 and branch coverage is 2
d) Statement Coverage is 4 and Branch coverage is 2
28. Minimum Test Required for Statement Coverage 

Disc = 0
Order-qty = 0
Read Order-qty
If Order-qty >=20 then
Disc = 0.05
If Order-qty >=100 then
Disc =0.1
End if
End if

a) Statement coverage is 4
b) Statement coverage is 1
c) Statement coverage is 3
d) Statement Coverage is 2
29. The structure of an incident report is covered in the Standard for Software Test Documentation IEEE 829 and is called as

a) Anomaly Report
b) Defect Report
c) Test Defect Report
d) Test Incident Report 
30. Which of the following is the task of a Test Lead / Leader.

i. Interaction with the Test Tool Vendor to identify best ways to leverage test tool on the project.
ii. Write Test Summary Reports based on the information gathered during testing
iii. Decide what should be automated,to what degree and how.
iv. Create the Test Specifications

a) i, ii, iii is true and iv is false
b) ii,iii,iv is true and i is false
c) i is true and ii,iii,iv are false
d) iii and iv is correct and i and ii are incorrect

Test Specifications:
- Which test suites and test cases to run and which not.
31. Features of White Box Testing Technique 

i. We use explicit knowledge of the internal workings of
the item being tested to select the test data.
ii. Uses specific knowledge of programming code to examine outputs and assumes that the tester knows the
path of logic in a unit or a program.
iii. Checking for the performance of the application
iv. Also checks for functionality.

a) i, ii are true and iii and iv are false
b) iii is true and i,ii, iv are false
c) ii ,iii is true and i,iv is false
d) iii and iv are true and i,ii are false
32. Which of the following is a part of Test Closure Activities?

i. Checking which planned deliverables have been delivered
ii. Defect report analysis.
iii. Finalizing and archiving testware.
iv. Analyzing lessons.

a) i , ii , iv are true and iii is false
b) i , ii , iii are true and iv is false
c) i , iii , iv are true and ii is false
d) All of above are true
33. Which of the following will be the best definition for Testing 

a) The goal / purpose of testing is to demonstrate that the program works.
b) The purpose of testing is to demonstrate that the program is defect free.
c) The purpose of testing is to demonstrate that the program does what it is supposed to do.
d) Testing is executing Software for the purpose of finding defects. 
34. Which of the following is not a type of incremental testing approach?

a) Top down
b) Big-bang
c) Bottom up
d) Functional incrementation. 

Big Bang testing:
In Big Bang integration testing all components are integrated in one and after it tested as a whole system.

Top down Testing: In this approach testing is conducted from main module to sub module. if the sub module is not developed a temporary program called STUB is used for simulate the sub module

Bottom up testing: In this approach testing is conducted from sub module to main module, if the main module is not developed a temporary program called DRIVERS is used to simulate the main module.
35. Drivers are also known as:

i. Spade
ii. Test harness
iii. Scaffoldinga 

a) i , ii are true and iii is false
b) i , iii are true and ii is false
c) ii , iii are true and i is false
d) All of the above are true

Test harness/automated test:
Test data & collection of software configured to test a program and running it under varying conditions and monitoring its behavior.
36. Exit Criteria may consist of 

i. Thoroughness measures, such as coverage of code, functionality or
risk.
ii. Estimates of Defect density or reliability measures.
iii. Residual risk such as defects not fixed or lack of test coverage in certain areas
iv. Verifying the Test Environment.

a) iv is correct and i,ii,iii are incorrect.
b) i,ii,iii is correct and iv is incorrect
c) ii is correct and i,ii,iii are incorrect
d) iii and iv are correct and i,ii are incorrect
37. Which of the following helps in monitoring the Test Progress

i. Percentage of Test Case Execution
ii. Percentage of work done in test environment preparation.
iii. Defect Information e.g. defect density, defects found and fixed
iv. The size of the testing Team and skills of the engineers

a) iv is correct and i,ii,iii are incorrect
b) i,ii,iii are correct and iv is incorrect 
c) i,ii are correct and iii,iv are incorrect
d) i,iv are correct and ii , iii are incorrect
38. The selection of a test approach should consider the context 

i. Risk of Failure of the Project, hazards to the product and risks of product failure to humans
ii. Skills and experience of the people in the proposed technique, tools and methods
iii. The objective of the testing endeavor and the mission of the testing team.
iv. The size of the testing Team

a) i,ii,iii,iv are true
b) i,ii,iii are true and iv is false.
c) ii,iii,iv are true and i is false.
d) i,iv are true and ii, iii are false. 

Test approach:
- Implementation of test strategy, planning, selecting the design, defining the entry/exit criteria.
39. In case of Large Systems

a) Only few tests should be run
b) Testing should be on the basis of Risk
c) Only Good Test Cases should be executed.
d) Test Cases written by good test engineers should be executed.
40. When what is visible to end-users is a deviation from the specific or expected behavior, this is called:

a) an error
b) a fault
c) a failure
d) a defect
e) a mistake

Error:
A human action that produces an incorrect result

Fault or Defect or Bug:
Error in software
41. Regression testing should be performed:

v) every week
w) after the software has changed
x) as often as possible
y) when the environment has changed
z) when the project manager says

a) v & w are true, x – z are false
b) w, x & y are true, v & z are false
c) w & y are true, v, x & z are false
d) w is true, v, x y and z are false
e) all of the above are true
42. IEEE 829 test plan documentation standard contains all of the following except:

a) test items
b) test deliverables
c) test tasks
d) test environment
e) test specification
43. Testing should be stopped when:

a) all the planned tests have been run
b) time has run out
c) all faults have been fixed correctly
d) both a) and c)
e) it depends on the risks for the system being tested
44. Order numbers on a stock control system can range between 10000 and 99999 inclusive. Which of the following inputs might be a result of designing tests for only valid equivalence classes and valid boundaries:

a) 1000, 5000, 99999
b) 9999, 50000, 100000
c) 10000, 50000, 99999
d) 10000, 99999
e) 9999, 10000, 50000, 99999, 10000 

10000,10001....50000....99998,99999
45. Consider the following statements about early test design:

i. early test design can prevent fault multiplication
ii. faults found during early test design are more expensive to fix
iii. early test design can find faults
iv. early test design can cause changes to the requirements
v. early test design takes more effort

a) i, iii & iv are true. Ii & v are false
b) iii is true, I, ii, iv & v are false
c) iii & iv are true. i, ii & v are false
d) i, iii, iv & v are true, ii us false
e) i & iii are true, ii, iv & v are false
46. Non-functional system testing includes:

a) testing to see where the system does not function properly
b) testing quality attributes of the system including performance and usability
c) testing a system feature using only the software required for that action
d) testing a system feature using only the software required for that function
e) testing for functions that should not exist
47. Which of the following is the main purpose of the integration strategy for integration testing in the small?

a) to ensure that all of the small modules are tested adequately
b) to ensure that the system interfaces to other systems and networks
c) to specify which modules to combine when and how many at once
d) to ensure that the integration testing can be performed by a small team
e) to specify how the software should be divided into modules
48. What is the purpose of test completion criteria in a test plan:

a) to know when a specific test has finished its execution
b) to ensure that the test case specification is complete
c) to set the criteria used in generating test inputs
d) to know when test planning is complete
e) to plan when to stop testing
49. Consider the following statements

i. an incident may be closed without being fixed
ii. incidents may not be raised against documentation
iii. the final stage of incident tracking is fixing
iv. the incident record does not include information on test environments
v. incidents should be raised when someone other than the author of the software performs the test

a) ii and v are true, I, iii and iv are false
b) i and v are true, ii, iii and iv are false
c) i, iv and v are true, ii and iii are false
d) i and ii are true, iii, iv and v are false 
e) i is true, ii, iii, iv and v are false
50. Given the following code, which is true about the minimum number of test cases required for full statement and branch coverage:

Read P
Read Q
IF P+Q > 100 THEN
Print “Large”
ENDIF
If P > 50 THEN
Print “P Large”
ENDIF

a) 1 test for statement coverage, 3 for branch coverage
b) 1 test for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage
c) 1 test for statement coverage, 1 for branch coverage
d) 2 tests for statement coverage, 3 for branch coverage
e) 2 tests for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage
51. Given the following:

Switch PC on
Start “outlook”
IF outlook appears THEN
Send an email
Close outlook

a) 1 test for statement coverage, 1 for branch coverage
b) 1 test for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage
c) 1 test for statement coverage. 3 for branch coverage
d) 2 tests for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage
e) 2 tests for statement coverage, 3 for branch coverage
52. Given the following code, which is true:

IF A > B THEN
C = A – B
ELSE
C = A + B
ENDIF
Read D
IF C = D Then
Print “Error”
ENDIF

a) 1 test for statement coverage, 3 for branch coverage
b) 2 tests for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage
c) 2 tests for statement coverage. 3 for branch coverage
d) 3 tests for statement coverage, 3 for branch coverage
e) 3 tests for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage
53. Consider the following:

Pick up and read the newspaper
Look at what is on television
If there is a program that you are interested in watching then switch the the television on and watch the program
Otherwise
Continue reading the newspaper
If there is a crossword in the newspaper then try and complete the crossword

a) SC = 1 and DC = 1
b) SC = 1 and DC = 2
c) SC = 1 and DC = 3
d) SC = 2 and DC = 2
e) SC = 2 and DC = 3

Read Newspaper
Watch TV
 if(program)
   Watch TV
 else
   Read Newspaper
{
   if(crossword )
     try solve it;
}
54. The place to start if you want a (new) test tool is:

a) Attend a tool exhibition
b) Invite a vendor to give a demo
c) Analyse your needs and requirements
d) Find out what your budget would be for the tool
e) Search the internet
55. When a new testing tool is purchased, it should be used first by:

a) A small team to establish the best way to use the tool
b) Everyone who may eventually have some use for the tool
c) The independent testing team
d) The managers to see what projects it should be used in
e) The vendor contractor to write the initial scripts
56. What can static analysis NOT find?

a) The use of a variable before it has been defined
b) Unreachable (“dead”) code
c) Whether the value stored in a variable is correct
d) The re-definition of a variable before it has been used
e) Array bound violations
57. Which of the following is NOT a black box technique:

a) Equivalence partitioning
b) State transition testing
c) LCSAJ
d) Syntax testing
e) Boundary value analysis
58. Beta testing is:

a) Performed by customers at their own site
b) Performed by customers at their software developer’s site
c) Performed by an independent test team
d) Useful to test bespoke software
e) Performed as early as possible in the lifecycle
59. Given the following types of tool, which tools would typically be used by developers and which by an independent test team:

i. static analysis
ii. performance testing
iii. test management
iv. dynamic analysis
v. test running
vi. test data preparation

a) developers would typically use i, iv and vi; test team ii, iii and v
b) developers would typically use i and iv; test team ii, iii, v and vi
c) developers would typically use i, ii, iii and iv; test team v and vi
d) developers would typically use ii, iv and vi; test team I, ii and v
e) developers would typically use i, iii, iv and v; test team ii and vi
60. The main focus of acceptance testing is:

a) finding faults in the system
b) ensuring that the system is acceptable to all users
c) testing the system with other systems
d) testing for a business perspective
e) testing by an independent test team
61. Which of the following statements is NOT true:

a) inspection is the most formal review process
b) inspections should be led by a trained leader
c) managers can perform inspections on management documents
d) inspection is appropriate even when there are no written documents
e) inspection compares documents with predecessor (source) documents